Regenerative medicine (RM) is one of the fastest growing trends in the modern medicine. A multidisciplinary approach features RM; cell is the main focus of this science. Also the use of bioengineering is actively developing, in particular - biodegradable materials (scaffolds, microcapsules, etc.). The content of RM is the replacement or regeneration of cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal body functioning. The intense interest from the scientific and medical communities, investors and governments of different countries in RM research can be explained by the "subversive characteristics" of these works as they can potentially provide products that supersede many of the traditional approaches to the treatment and prevention of diseases.
Together with various clinical departments of MONIKI as well as with external organizations, laboratory employees conduct series of studies in the field of RM. In particular, as a result of the work carried out with the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics RAS (Pushchino) and the Department of Pediatric Surgery of MONIKI the model of anal incontinence (encopresis) and the method of bone marrow cells atopic transplantation for its correction were created. Methods of biodegradable scaffolds vitalization and implantation are also being invented. The direction of the experimental conditions correction in laboratory animals by tissue transplantation into the immune privileged areas (anterior chamber of eye, testicles) is actively developing. Methods of pancreatic tissue transplantation, which allow achieving the experimental diabetes compensation, were created. Also we developed thymic tissue transplantation techniques, the use of which leads to increase of the average and maximal life span in the intact animals or to reduce mortality after the exposure to radiation in lethal dose. These studies were funded under the grant of the President of the Russian Federation for young scientists, the Russian Sciences Academy Presidium programs "Supporting innovation and development" and the programs of the Fund of assistance to development of small forms of the enterprises in scientific and technical sphere ("UMNIK", "START"). The authors of this work in 2013 were awarded by the Moscow Region Governor's Prize in the Field of Science and Innovation for Young Scientists. They are offered to create a separate research group with a focus on the selection in the future as an independent scientific laboratory.
In 2013-2015, together with Kurchatov's NBIC-center we carried out the study "Investigation of Physical and Chemical Properties and Pharmacokinetics of Bioresorbable Polymers bearing Cells and Drugs" (project No.13-03-00913) supported by the Russian Fund of Basic Researches (RFBR). As a result of the conducted researches it was found that microcapsules may be promising for use in RM as carriers of growth or differentiation factors. The main drawback of the existing technology of microencapsulation in Kurchatov's NBIC-center is that the polyelectrolyte microcapsules have a very small work (free) volume to contain pharmaceuticals. Today, according to our estimates it is less than a hundredth of a percent, while the needed amount should be 5-10%. It is too small for practical applications and greatly narrows the scope of the microcapsules. However, as it was shown by our biophysicist Oxana Smirnova, for factors of cell's growth/differentiation such amount may be sufficient enough. Therefore, we developed the non-invasive method for registration of the pharmacokinetics and resorption dynamics of microcapsules in animals’ tissues based on the methods of fluorescence spectroscopy in vivo. Capsules of different dimensions, different compositions and with different numbers of shell-layers were tested. The possibility of controlled and prolonged release of the drug from microcapsules through the use of microcapsules with a different number of shell-layers was shown. However, for a large number of layers, the free volume in the microcapsule solution critically decreases and extensive calcification, edema, and inflammation occurred in the tissue at the injection site.